Authors GuidelinesAuthors Guidelines
For Use of MS Word Format:The Manuscript must be prepared on standard-sized paper (8.5” x 11”), double spaced with 1” margins on all sides. 12 pt Times New Roman fonts should be used for Manuscript preparation. Fonts should be restricted to Times New Roman in both the document as well as within graphics
Manuscript should be typed in double-column format.
The authors should use a simple layout.
The authors should not embed "graphically designed" equations or tables; instead prepare these using the word-processor's facility such as equation editor.
Single table grid should be used for each individual table while preparing tables for the manuscript. Authors should use tabs and not spaces to align columns in case no grid is used
. Authors should prepare electronic text in a manner similar to that of conventional manuscripts.
Authors should use the "spell-check" and "grammar-check" functions of the word-processor to avoid unnecessary errors.
It must be Concise and informative
Information-retrieval systems often use Titles for retrieving information.
Formulae and abbreviations should be avoided in title where possible.
The first character of each word in the title has to be capitalized.
Author names and affiliations:Ambiguous family names should be indicated clearly.
Authors’ affiliation addresses should be presented below the names.
All affiliations should be indicated with a lower-case superscript letter following immediately the authors’ name and also before each affiliation.
All affiliation should include complete address including country name.
If available, each authors’ e-mail address should be provided or at least e-mail address of the corresponding author should be given.
Corresponding AuthorThe corresponding author, who will be responsible for all correspondences including refereeing, publication and post publication, should be clearly indicated.
Main affiliation address should contain the address where the authors’ had done the work.
Telephone numbers and fax numbers should be provided with country followed by area code in addition to e-mail address in foot note.
Both present and permanent addresses must be provided in footnote in case the corresponding author was visiting the work place during the time the research work was being carried out.
Abstract:Authors’ should provide a concise and factual content in abstract within the limit of 250 words.
The abstract should present a brief summarization of the purpose for the research, the hypothesis tested, the approach used, the principal results followed by major conclusions.
References should be avoided in abstract.
Abstract should not contain Non-standard or uncommon abbreviations.
KeywordsSince, keywords are used for indexing purposes so, specific keywords should be provided.
A maximum of 6 keywords should be provided immediately after the abstract.
It should avoid usage of general and plural terms and compound terms.
In keywords, abbreviations should also be avoided.
Keywords should be left aligned.
Subdivision - numbered sectionsThe authors’ should divide the article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Numbering of subsections should be done as 1.1 continuing with 1.1.1, 1.1.2…, 1.2, etc. for next levels of hierarchy.
Abstract should not be included in section numbering.
Numbering of sections should be used for internal cross-referencing: authors should not just refer to "the text".
Separate lines should be used for each heading.
Subsections should also be given a brief heading.
IntroductionIntroduction should present a description for the submitted research work with sufficient background along with proposed hypothesis.
State the objectives of the research work.
A strong background should be provided while avoiding a detailed literature survey or also summary of the results should be avoided so that scientifically literate reader can understand.
In-text citations should be included wherever required.
Material and methodsThe authors’ should provide materials and subjects that are used in the study as well as the procedures adopted to complete the work.
Sufficient details of the methods should be provided to allow the work to be reproduced by competent researchers.
Authors’ should provide illustrations or tables which will help to describe complex procedures.
Tools used for analyzing the data should be presented.
Existing methods that have been already published should be indicated by a reference and relevant modifications should be elaborated.
Statements for necessary ethical approval from appropriate committees should be provided in case of involvement of animals or human subjects.
Company source should be provided for all uncommon reagents like, drugs, kits etc.
Ethical approval from appropriate ethics committee should be acquired for all procedures involving experimental animals or human subjects.
Theory/calculationAuthors should not repeat existing theories already presented in background. However, authors’ can extend the theory for further work.
Practical development of theoretical basis can be presented through illustration of calculations.
ResultsAppropriate statistical tools should be used to present the analysis of data acquired from the research work.
For each experiment, the authors should provide proper description, results obtained along with its significance.
Results representation should be clear and concise.
Figures and tables can be used to illustrate results with descriptive captions.
Captions should be capable of providing appropriate information to the reader.
Both quantitative as well as qualitative results can be provided.
DiscussionThis section map the results obtained to the problem being investigated.
Discussion should explain the significance of the results of the work, it should not repeat them.
Comparative description of related references should be included to support the significance of the authors’ work.
Results of the hypothesis test should be provided in this section.
A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate.
Extensive citations and discussion of published literature should be avoided in this section.
Figures and captionsIt should be ensured that each illustration must have a caption.
Captions should be provided separately and should not be attached to the figure.
A caption should consist of a brief description of the illustration.
All symbols and abbreviations used in illustrations should be explained by keeping minimum text.
TablesTables must be numbered consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text.
Table captions should be positioned at the top of the table.
Math formulaeSimple formulae should be presented in the line of normal text where possible.
Equation editor should be used to present all compound formulae.
Variables should be presented in italics.
Authors should use exp to denote powers of e.
All equations should be numbered consecutively so that it can be referred easily in text.
FootnotesFootnotes should be used sparingly.
Footnotes should be numbered in consecutive sequence using superscript Arabic numbers.
Footnotes should not be used in the reference list.
ConclusionsConclusions of the study should be derived from the Discussion or Results and Discussion section.
Authors’ should provide standalone description of the research work with the findings supporting the claims.
Open directions for further extension of the research work should also be discussed in this section.
Acknowledgements – Limit of 100 WordsAcknowledgement should provide credit to the people who have helped the authors in the research work or manuscript preparation but are not included in authorship.
All applicable grants and funding should be mentioned here.
Reference Citation style in Text:IRNET is following basic APA referencing style for references as follows:
All references used in writing the paper should be listed here including the author name, date of publication, title and more.
APA reference list must include the following:
Start on a new page.
The list of references must be arranged alphabetically by name of first author.
If multiple works of the same author has been referred then order these by date. In case the publications of the same author belong to the same year, order them alphabetically in terms of the title along with allocating a lowercase alphabet (such as a, b, c etc) after the date.
In-Text ReferencesIn-text references must be included where a quote or paraphrase has been taken from another author’s work.
In-text references correspond to a reference listed in the main list of references.
These citations are presented using the surname of the author followed by the year of publication. For example, the work of James Jonas in the year 2017 can be cited as (Jonas, 2017).
A page number must be added in case of using a direct quotes. For example, (Jonas, 2017, p. 104)
In case of two authors, surname of both the authors must be stated. For example, (Jonas & Smith, 2017).
In case of three to five authors, the names of all the authors should be listed in the first citation of the work. For example, (Jonas, Smith, & Branson, 2017). For next citations, only first author’s surname followed by et al can be used. For example, (Jonas et al, 2017).
Again, in case of six or more authors, surname of the first author only should be stated followed by et al and the publication year. For example, (Jonas et al, 2017).
To cite multiple works of an author from the same year, lowercase letters a, b, c etc should follow the year of publication. For example, (Jonas, 2017a) or (Jonas, 2017b).
Multiple works of the same author from different years can be cited as the author’s surname, chronologically followed by years of publications. For example, (Jonas, 2007, 2013, 2017).
Multiple works of different authors from different years can be cited as the authors’ surname together, ordered alphabetically followed by years of publications where each work is separated from the other by a semicolon. For example, (Jonas & Smith 2017; Branson, Coytne, & Davis, 2015).
A secondary source can be cited by stating the original author and publication year followed by ‘as cited in’. The author’s name and publication year of the secondary author should be following it.
While in-text citations do not vary with source type, referencing style does vary with the source type.
Examples of References:
Book:Format: Author surname, Initial(s). (Year). Title(ed.). Publisher location: Publisher
(ed) is edition, not applicable for first edition.
Jonas, J.A., Branson, M., & Coytne, R.P. (2017). A guide to citation. London, England: My Publisher
Jones, A.F & Wang, L. (2011). Spectacular creatures: The Amazon rainforest (2nd ed.). San Jose, Costa Rica: My Publisher
Edited Book:Format: Author surname, Initial(s).(Ed(s).). (Year). Title(ed.). Publisher location: Publisher
Ed(s) represents editors. Ed is used for single editor and Eds for multiple editors.
Sawyer, S.T. (Ed.). (2015). Referencing: A guide to references and citations (3rd ed.). New York, NY: My Publisher
Chapter in an Edited Book:Format: Surname of the chapter author, Initial(s). (Year). Chapter Title. In editor initial(s), surname (Ed.). Title (ed., pp.chapter page range). location:
In the following example, N.B. Thompson is the author of the chapter and S.T. Sawyer is the editor.
Thompson, N.B. (2015). APA citation rules. In S.T, Sawyer (Ed.). A guide to references and citations (2nd ed., pp. 50-95). New York, NY:
Journal Article:Format: Author surname, Initial(s).(Year). Article Title. Journal Title, Volume Number (Issue or part number, optional), page numbers. DOI or Retrieved from URL
Lachner, A., Backfisch, I., Hoogerheide, V., van Gog, T., & Renkl, A. (2020). Timing matters! Explaining between study phases enhances students’ learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 112(4), 841–853. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000396