International Journal of Instrumentation Control and Automation


The two most important expected objectives of the transmission line protection are – 1) Differentiating the internal faults from external faults and 2) identifying exactly the fault type using one end data only. In conventional distance protection scheme only 80 percent of line length gets primary protection while for remaining 20 percent of line length a time delay is provided to avoid maloperation due to overreach in case of D.C. offset. In this new scheme a fault generated transients based protection method is introduced by which the whole line length gets primary protection by using the concept of bus capacitance. This scheme implements improved solution based on wavelet transform and self-organized neural network. The measured current and voltage signals are preprocessed first and then decomposed using wavelet multiresolution analysis to obtain the high frequency and low frequency information. The training patterns are formed based on high frequency signal components and the low frequency components of all three phase voltages and current. Zero sequence voltage and current are also used to identify faults involving grounds. The input sets formed based on the high frequency components are arranged as inputs of neural network-1, whose task is to indicate whether the fault is internal or external. The input sets formed based on the low frequency components are arranged as inputs of neural network- 2, whose task is indicate the type of fault. The new method uses both low and high frequency information of the fault signal to achieve an advanced transmission line protection scheme.



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