International Journal of Communication Networks and Security


This paper gives the overview of audio and video watermarking. This paper introduces the basic requirements that affect the algorithms for audio and video watermarking which are perceptibility, robustness and security. The attacks which cause manipulations of the audio and video signals are also discussed. The common group of attacks on audio and video data is dynamics, filtering, conversion, compression, noise, modulation, time stretch and pitch shift, multiple watermark, cropping, rotation etc. The applications of audio and video watermarking are Fingerprinting, copyright protection, authentication, copy control etc. The audio watermarking techniques can be classified into Time-domain and Frequencydomain methods and video watermarking techniques are classified into spatial domain, frequency domain and formatspecific domain.





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