This paper introduces a new micropayment scheme, suitable for all kinds of transactions, and does not require online transactions for either the payer or payee. The designed method uses an encrypted data structure called Codex which self replicates to represent the current values of both the payer and the payee. The model, while providing fraud detection also guarantees payment & loss recovery.
Sagar, A B.
"Codex Enables Secure Offline Micropayments,"
International Journal of Computer and Communication Technology: Vol. 5
, Article 8.
Available at: https://www.interscience.in/ijcct/vol5/iss3/8