International Journal of Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering


Over the last ten years, 3D printing technology has played a pivotal role in transforming the manufacturing industry. A recent advancement within the realm of 3D printing has introduced time as a fourth dimension, enabling the creation of 4D printing components. While a 3D-printed design remains static, a 4D-printed design has the remarkable ability to change its shape in response to environmental conditions. This paper also examines various applications of 4D printing across diverse fields such as electronics, renewable energy, aerospace, food, healthcare, and fashion. The review addresses research gaps, the current obstacles in 4D printing, and the future prospects of this technology.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.