Ground effect plays a vital role in modulating the flow behavior over any streamlined body. The most widely used wing-in ground effect (WIG) aircrafts and seaplanes utilize this phenomenon in order to enhance the aerodynamic performance during the landing and take-off phases of flight. This paper investigates the aerodynamics of ground effect on a NACA 4412 rectangular wing without end plates. The experiment was conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel at Re=2×105 for the ground clearance of 1 and 0.5 of the chord, measured from the maximum thickness position on the airfoil. The pressure distribution over the chord length was recorded for α=3° and 6° to verify the effect of ground clearance during takeoffs. The results have shown to be in good accordance with the literature, as the coefficient of lift augmented with increase in ground proximity and the induced drag was minimized.
Pallay, Aditi Deekshita; Wahab, Abdul; Shesham, Akhil; and Dwivedi, Y D
"Effect of Ground Proximity on Aerodynamic Characteristics of NACA 4412 Airfoil,"
Graduate Research in Engineering and Technology (GRET): Vol. 1
, Article 14.
Available at: https://www.interscience.in/gret/vol1/iss4/14